Friday, 14 June 2019

How Brother Ham and Sister Sausage Inspired the Gay Rights Movement in America

While we commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall Riots later this month we shouldn’t forget that the gay rights movement in the USA began long before 1969. One of the biggest gay rights groups was founded in 1950. It went through several names before it settled on the Mattachine Society.

In adopting that name the society was referencing an earlier group of men who, like themselves, had hidden behind “masks” to protect themselves. Gay men in the 1940s and 50s concealed their sexuality or be discrimination against. The earlier Mattachine group were men who wore real masks to protect their identities while they openly satirised and ridiculed the Church of medieval France. This earlier group was called the Société Mattachine.

The Société Mattachine was just one of many French troupes given the generic name of Sociétés Joyeuse. They originated in the 15th century and consisted of people from towns, villages and cities who formed for one specific event, the annual Feast of Fools.

There’s a lot of misinformation circulating on the internet about this Feast of Fools. The claim that it originated in a Roman or pagan religious festival is wrong (why are people obsessed with giving pagan origins to everything based on nothing but date? You can claim Pride marches have pagan originals because the ancient religions had communal processions near the summer solstice as well). Most ancient pagan festivals that were banned in the Roman Empire from 389 AD were forgotten during the long centuries that followed in the so-called Dark Ages (5th to 11th centuries).

The spring-time Feast of Fools was also not the same as the topsy-turvy Feast of the Bean and other role-reversal winter celebrations. They are different celebrations that existed before, during and after the Feast of Fools existed. Harry Hay, the co-founder of the Mattachine Society who chose the name, fell into the trap of believing the Victorian-era fabricated history of the Feast of Fools.

The Feast of Fools originated in 12th century France as a celebration held by junior clergy. Its name was inspired by the Bible verse – “You are fools for Christ, but you are so wise in Christ!” (1 Corinthians 4:10). These clergy indulged in comic role-play as bishops and generally had a jolly good time. People have always dressed up to celebrate events, look at Pride. There was no act of worship or church service to go with. The Feast was an early form of the satirical sketches seen on television today.

Because the Feast of Fools was not a religious festival public participation increased until in the 15th century they also began to produce little satirical plays. The performers were called Sociétés Joyeuse and their plays were called Sermon Joyeux. The performers, both men and women, were often masked not only to hide their identity but to add to the satire with distorted masks. The Société Mattachine were just one of these groups.

The subjects of the Sermon Joyeux, as the name suggests, was religious. They were also comically vulgar and full of sexual symbolism. Generally the Sermon told the story of a fictional “saint” or religious character and his or her life and martyrdom. Along the way the “saint” has various adventures, all of which were thinly disguised parodies of religious practices.

Sadly, most of the Sermons were not written down. We are lucky to have a handful that were printed, and one features two of the most popular characters in the Sermon Joyeux. The “Le devot de sainct sermon de monseigneur Sainct Jambon et de madame saincte Andouille” was printed in Paris in 1521 by Jean Jehannot. The names Sainct Jambon and Saincte Andouille translate as Brother Ham and Sister Sausage. The Sermon Joyeux often had food-named characters with sexual connotations. Brother Ham refers to the back of a pig, i.e. the anus, and Sister Sausage is an obvious sexual reference still used in comedy today.

It is in “Le devot de sainct sermon de monseigneur Sainct Jambon et de madame saincte Andouille” that we encounter one of the rare instances of a hint of homosexual activity. In this Sermon a character “steals” Andouille in order to transport Jambon to another place. The allusion to anal sex would be apparent to the medieval audience, and may be a reference to the common accusations that male clergy often had illicit gay sex (also encountered in both Chaucer and Dante, contemporary authors to the time of the Feast of Fools).
The title page of “Le devot de sainct sermon de monseigneur Sainct Jambon et de madame saincte Andouille” (Image source Bibliothèque Nationale de France).
As with other “saint” characters Brother Ham and Sister Sausage come to their expected demise. Jambon is martyred by being killed and salted, just like a real joint of ham, and Sister Andouille is boiled, roasted and cut into pieces and fed to the townswomen, just like a real sausage.

The Société Mattachine may well have known and performed a version of the Sermon Joyeux of Brother Ham and Sister Sausage. They would also have known and used other well-known characters with names that had sexual connotations, such as Sainct Boude (Brother Sausage), Saincte Fente (Sister Crack) and Sainct Pilzan (Brother Foal’s-First-Tooth, referring to the first sexual awakenings of puberty and alluding to the belief that toothache was a punishment for sexual guilt; they did have strange ideas in those days!).

Even though the Sermon Joyeux were very clear in their satirical message and sexual imagery the reason they got away with it, apart from many of them being anonymous behind masks, was that the plays didn’t name specific real clergy. The clergy realised the plays were satirical and gave the Société Joyeuse some leeway. However, as the next century progressed the Sermon Joyeux became more outrageous and verging on heretical and so the church authorities cracked down on them and they were eventually banned. (The alleged Feast of Fools shown in Disney’s “The Hunchback of Notre Dame” is NOT the same one.)

And so, the Sermon Joyeux and the Société Joyeuse of medieval France satirised the Church authorities with food and sex-related characters. The Société Mattachine were just one of many groups of local groups who performed during the annual French Feast of Fools. Many centuries later a student of Medieval French literature and drama, Harry Hay, used the Mattachine name for a gay rights movement. The masked medieval Mattachine pointed out the weaknesses and contradictions within the Church and were a role model for the Mattachine Society in the 1950s to point out the weaknesses and contradictions within society about the criminalisation of homosexuals.

In October, for LGBT History Month USA, I’ll look at the origins of the first major lesbian rights organisation, the Daughters of Bilitis.

Monday, 10 June 2019

Heraldic Alphabet 2019

Happy International Heraldry Day. Here is the latest selection of members of the lgbt community who are entitled, in reality or theory, to bear a coat of arms. There are 24 of them this year.

The format is as before. The people are listed in alphabetical order by the surname or name commonly used or known (e.g. Pope Julius III is listed under J, and not under D for his family name of Del Monte). The arms may be inherited, granted by a heraldic authority, assumed (not officially registered but accepted under continuance of use through several generations), marital, or arms of office.

There is only one transgender armiger (a person who has a coat of arms) this year, Jenny Bailey. The arms shown are those she was entitled to use in her official capacity as Mayor of Cambridge. Several others were eligible to bear various arms of office (e.g. Sir Arthur Vicars).

In English and Scottish heraldry unmarried and widowed women are not entitled to put their coat of arms on a shield but on a diamond shaped lozenge. This is the case with several women below. Women who bear arms of office can use a shield. To produce a more uniform look I’ve shown all arms on shields. I mention below which arms would be officially displayed on a lozenge.

Not all of them people listed actually used a coat of arms. Some are theoretical and could be used according to current heraldic regulations.
A) Waheed Alli, Baron Alli (b.1964) – media entrepreneur. Arms granted with a crest and supporters by the College of Arms in 1998 after he was created a life peer.

B) Jenny Bailey (b.1962) – local politician. Arms of office as Mayor of Cambridge 2007-8. These arms were granted to the borough of Cambridge way back in 1575 and illustrate the origin of the town’s name – the bridge over the River Cam.

C) Peter Coke (1913-2008) – actor. Inherited arms. Peter is known mainly for his 14 year career as BBC’s radio detective Paul Temple. Family tradition says that the crescents were adopted as the family emblem by an ancestor who fought in the Crusades with Richard the Lionheart.

D) Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) – artist and inventor. I wrote an article here on Leonardo’s coat of arms to commemorate the 500th anniversary of his death.

E) Martha May Eliot (1891-1978) – paediatrician and Assistant Director of the World Health Organisation. Inherited arms from her direct ancestor Samuel Eliot (1748-1788) of Boston, Massachusetts. Samuel owned a framed watercolour given to him by Sir Isaac Heard, Garter King of Arms, depicting his coat of arms.

F) Sir John Finch (1626-1682) – British Ambassador to Constantinople. Inherited arms. These are carved on his gravestone with those of his partner Sir Thomas Baines. The 3 lions are the arms of the Fitzherberts from whom the Finch family descend.
G) Eileen Gray (1878-1976) – architect and interior designer. Maternal arms (theoretically on a lozenge). Eileen’s original name was Hon. Kathleen Eileen Smith, and was a daughter of Baroness Gray, a Scottish peer. In 1897 Eileen’s father changed his children’s name to Gray (as their mother’s coheirs). Eileen’s sister inherited the title and registered this ancient Gray coat of arms for herself. As a Scot Eileen would have had to register her own version of these arms. There’s no record of her doing so.

H) Penelope Hoare (1940-2017) – editorial director of several publishers. Inherited arms (on a lozenge). The arms descend from her ancestor, Sir Richard Hoare, Lord Mayor of London in 1713.

I) Jaroslav Iwaszkiewicz (1894-1980) – writer and poet. The Iwaszkiewicz family belonged to the Polish-Ukrainian clan of Gozdawa. Polish heraldry is unique in having clan arms (called a herb) which can be used by many families. Legend says these were conferred upon a Gozdawa ancestor in 1090 by the Duke of Poland.

J) Pope Julius III (1481-1555) – Pope. Inherited arms. Pope Julius was baptised Giovanni Maria de’ Ciocchi Del Monte. Those funny lumpy shapes on the diagonal stripe are heraldic representations of mountains – Del Monte means “of the mountain”.

K) Robert Ketton-Cremer (1906-1969) – owner of Fellbrigg Hall, Norfolk. Inherited arms. Controversy erupted in 2017 when Robert’s family criticised the National Trust, who now own Fellbrigg, for “outing” him during LGBT History Month. These are the arms of the Cremer family.

L) Ned Lathom (1895-1930) – aristocrat and amateur playwright. Inherited arms. Ned Lathom is the popular name for Edward Bootle-Wilbraham, 3rd and last Earl of Lathom. Peers often use their title as their surname. The blue and white quarters are the arms of the Wilbraham family, and the red and white are those of the Bootles.
M) Dr. Heather Morris-Eyton (b.1967) – lecturer in Sport and Movement, Johannesburg University; Gay Games multi-medal-winning swimmer. Inherited arms (on a lozenge in England, on a shield in South Africa). The red quarters are the arms of the Eyton family, and the black quarters those of the Morris family. The arms were united in 1905 by the marriage of Heather’s great-grandfather to the Eyton heiress.

N) Isabella Norcliffe (d.1846) – partner of landowner Anne Lister. Inherited arms (on a lozenge). Born Isabella Dalton her father changed the family name and arms in 1807 when he inherited the Norcliffe family estates from his mother’s brother.

O) Lt. Myles O’Donovan (1896-1918) – World War I casualty. Inherited arms. As mentioned in my article for the centenary of the Armistice of 1918 Myles was a son of the O’Donovan clan chief. He belongs to same family as Connell Hill O’Donovan in my Heraldic Alphabet of 2017. The crescent indicates that Myles was a second son.

P) Isabella Pell (1900-1951) – socialite and member of the French Resistance during World War II. Inherited arms. Isabella was of the same family as Julia Pell, whose arms I described in more detail here.

Q) Dr. Alexandre Quintanilha (b.1945) – molecular biologist and member of the Portuguese parliament. Possible inherited arms. The rules of Portuguese heraldry can cause confusion. Anyone can assume the surname and arms of any ancestor, and they don’t have to match. Various small emblems showing which side of the family the arms come from are placed on the shield. Alexandre’s father (whose birth surname was da Silva) adopted the name of Quintanilha from his grandfather’s grandmother. These are the arms of her family. I don’t know if these arms are used by Alexandre Quintanilha but he is entitled to adopt them to go with the name.

R) Anna Rochester (1880-1966) – labour reformer and journalist. Assumed inherited arms. Anna descends from Nicholas Rochester of Kent who migrated to Virginia in 1689. Even though these arms belong to the Rochesters of Essex there’s no proof that Nicholas was related to them. However, because he were used by him and his descendants they have become the de facto arms of the American Rochester family for use in the USA, since there is no US government heraldic authority to say otherwise.
S) Baroness Ebba Sparre (1626-1662) – lady-in-waiting and possible lover of Queen Kristina of Sweden. Arms granted in 1647 to her uncle, his brothers (Ebba’s father was dead by then) and their families when Queen Kristina created them barons and baronesses. The Sparre family arms are contained on the smaller central shield. The palm trees and antelopes are symbolic elements probably representing righteousness and harmony respectively.

T) Aubrey William Trask (b.1989) – computer technologist. Granted by the Canadian Heraldic Authority in September 2018, making them the newest lgbt coat of arms I know of. Red and white represents Canada in a pattern symbolising electronic circuits. The octopus represents flexibility. Aubrey was administrator of the lgbt student organisation when he was studying at McGill University.

V) Sir Arthur Vicars (1862-1927) – herald. Inherited arms. Sir Arthur could impale (place on the right half of a shield) these family arms next to the arms of office of Ulster King of Arms. He was implicated in the theft of the crown jewels of Ireland.

W) Dorothy Wellesley, Duchess of Wellington (1889-1956) – author, poet and socialite. Marital arms. Dorothy was born Dorothy Ashton and married Sir Gerald Wellesley, 7th Duke of Wellington. As husband and wife they displayed their family arms together. The Ashton arms on our right are impaled with the Wellesley arms on our left.

Y) Prince Felix Yusupov (1887-1967) – Russian prince, known primarily for his role in the murder of the monk Rasputin. Inherited arms. Prince Felix’s father, Count Sumarokov-Elston, married the Yusupov heiress and adopted her name. The Sumarakov-Elston arms were added to hers and they are the two at the bottom of the shield.

Z) Nikolai Zverev (1832-1893) – pianist, tutor to Sergie Rachmaninoff. Inherited arms. Nikolai belonged to an old Russian aristocratic family.

Wednesday, 5 June 2019

Game of Gay Thrones II

A lot of people, and media publicity, has been raving about the end (thankfully!) of “Game of Thrones”. Like the majority of television viewers I’ve never seen it. Apart from the fact that I can’t afford the subscription, nothing in any preview or interview has told me what the series is actually about, so nothing has got me interested in it. What clips I have seen had very little acting in them, and even then it was the worst ham acting that isn’t even worthy of “Scooby Doo”.

However, it does give me an excuse to celebrate the long-overdue demise of an over-hyped programme by presenting a follow-up to my “Game of Gay Thrones” article which featured five lgbt claimants and pretenders to various crowns. There are actually enough lgbt wannabe monarchs to stretch the theme into three more articles. So here is the second.

Several of today’s pretenders can be described as hypothetical. There are different reasons why they may never have been actual claimants to a throne, but they have, to some extent, been considered as heirs, one way or another.

Let’s have a look at them in chronological order.

1) Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus (c.35-68 AD), claimant to the throne of the Roman Empire. During the reign of Emperor Nero Gaius was a Prefect of the Praetorian Guard, the elite unit of the Imperial army. Although he was the son and grandson of freed slaves Gaius managed to rise in power thanks to the uncovering on a conspiracy to assassinate Nero. After Nero eventually did die Gaius began claiming to be an illegitimate son of a previous emperor, Caligula. To secure his claim Gaius married Nero’s widowed male empress Sporus (it is said that Nero’s body was still burning on his funeral pyre when the marriage took place, Gaius was obviously wasting no time). While it doesn’t necessarily indicate that Gaius had any sexual interest in young Sporus, it is known that Roman emperors indulged in pederastic activity, and as a member of the Praetorian Guard Gaius may even have formed a sexual relationship with a younger soldier. Both activities were influenced by the ancient Greeks. As a Roman soldier Gaius wasn’t allowed to get married anyway, so as soon as Nero was out of the way he married someone with an imperial title and rank to boost his claim to the throne. The only other surviving spouse of Nero was a rather dull woman with no power or influence. However, a rival to the throne, Galba, was approaching Rome with an army and the Praetorian Guard considered him a better prospect as emperor than Gaius, so they murdered Gaius and put Galba on the throne instead.

2) St. Boris, Prince of Rostov (990-1015), regarded by some during his lifetime as the preferred successor to his father Vladimir, Grand Prince of Kiev. I wrote a bit about St. Boris twice before, most recently here. Succession to the throne of Kiev was not by male-preferred primogeniture (as the throne of the UK was until recently) but was often decided by which of the nearest male relatives on the reigning monarch was the most powerful. Rivalry between brothers often resulted in one assassinating the others. This is the case with St. Boris. Grand Prince Vladimir, who converted to Christianity and founded the Russian Orthodox Church, had twelve sons. Not all of them shared their father’s new faith so you can imagine some of them were keen to ensure that their father’s successor was a pagan (none of the Christian sons had any intention of killing off their brothers). This meant that any brother who converted to Christianity was a threat. Boris was a popular ruler in his own principality of Rostov, a popularity which may also alarmed his pagan brothers. This is what eventually led to St. Boris’s assassination in 1015 by his brother.

3) Prince Louis de Bourbon, Duke of Condé (1646-1686), claimant to the throne of Poland-Lithuania – twice. I’ve also written about the Duke before regarding his attempts to be elected king in last year’s “Around the World in Another 80 Gays”. You can read the details there.

4) Harry Domela (1905-1979) claimed to be Prince Wilhelm of Germany, grandson and heir to Kaiser Wilhelm II. He was, in fact, a Latvian-Russian of German ancestry. After World War I Harry moved to Germany where he began to claim various false identities. He was imprisoned several times for being an imposter but this didn’t stop him. He managed to make the acquaintance of several German aristocrats and made such an impression that they thought he was Prince Wilhelm of Germany travelling incognito. There was some resemblance between the two and Harry did nothing to deny it. In fact he willingly went along with it and began adopting the lifestyle that implied he was the disinherited heir to the German empire. This was in despite of the fact that the real Prince Wilhelm was studying at the University of Bonn at the time. Very shrewdly Harry kept well away from people and places where the real Prince would likely to be known. It wasn’t long before Harry was uncovered as a fraud and once again arrested in 1926. While in prison he wrote his autobiography “A Sham Prince”. The courts decided his imposture was harmless and released him. His book sold well, and he even starred as himself in a 1927 film and a play. During this period he lodged in the guest rooms of the Magnus Hirschfeld’s Institute for Sexual Science in Berlin. Openly gay and something of an enigmatic figure after the 1930s Harry had many other adventures, often accompanied by French gay writer André Gide. I’m sure I’ll write about them in the future. Incidentally, the real Prince Wilhelm renounced his rights to the German throne in 1933.

5) James Knight Ord III (b.1976), claimed by perpetually unreliable and homophobic “Daily Mail” and “Mail Online” as the “true heir to the British throne” in an article in 2016. I debunked this claim in this article in which I give proof with actual documentary evidence, something any experienced Daily Mail journalist could have researched for themselves. Last year Mr. Ord himself contacted this blog to welcome my research. He had been aware of his family legend of an illegitimate descent from King George IV of Britain, but has not paid any serious attention to it.

In December I’ll present another set of lgbt claimants and pretenders.