Tuesday, 2 September 2014

Showing Talent

In recent years there has been a plethora of talent shows infesting our television screens. A new series of “X-Factor” began in the UK at the weekend. I don’t know about you but I can’t tell one show from another these days, they’re all equally contrived and over-hyped. However, they have provided a springboard for a whole army of lgbt singers to find their moment of fame, whether they actually have talent or not.

Before I present my list I must mention a couple of the more famous lgbt singers who found fame on tv talent shows. Top of the list is Will Young. In the days when the current format for these shows was still new and interesting Will emerged as the winner of the UK’s first “Pop Idol” series in 2002. It wasn’t until afterwards that he came as gay. It didn’t effect his popularity and indeed he has used his sexuality in videos and other media work. The true meaning of talent is the longevity of a career, and Will Young is still very popular some 12 years later.

In the USA the most successful talent show “find” is Adam Lambert. In 2009 Adam competed in the 8th series of “American Idol”. He came second in the final and, like Will Young, came out as gay afterwards although rumours of his sexuality were circulating before the series ended.

What I’ve done with this list is take the talent show as the main category heading and listed the lgbt singers who competed in those series. Several countries have their own version of these shows, and that is shown in the country sub-categories. The year each individual appeared is also indicated. This list should not be regarded as definitive. This list does not include dancers, of which Chris Olsage (Mr Gay World 2013) and Cheer San Francisco have been among the many other lgbt contestants.

Any Dream Will Do
UK 2007 -- Daniel Boys

Fame Academy
UK 2003 -- Alex Parks

… Got Talent
Thailand 2011 -- Bell Nuntita
UK 2014 -- Jamie Lambert;  La Voix and the London Gay Big Band;  Eva Iglesias
Ukraine 2012 -- Alexander Bohun
USA 2010 -- John Quale (aka Prince Poppycock)
USA 2012 -- Jonathan Allen
USA 2013 -- Branden James

(Pop) Idol
Australia 2003 -- Shane Jenek (aka Courtney Act)
Australia 2004 -- Anthony Callea
Australia 2009 -- Kate Cook
Canada 2003 -- Richie Wilcox
Germany 2003 -- Daniel Kübböck
Germany 2007 -- Mark Medlock
UK 2002 -- Will Young;  Korben 
USA 2002 -- Jim Verraros;  R J Helton
USA 2003 -- Clay Aiken;  Frenchie Davis
USA 2008 -- David Hernandez;  Danny Noriega
USA 2009 -- Adam Lambert;  Nathaniel Marshal
USA 2013 -- Josh “Jada” Davila;  Papa Sanchez
USA 2014 -- M K Nobilette

Star King (South Korea)
2007 -- Charice Pempengco

Star Search
USA 1983 -- Sam Harris

The Voice
USA 2003 -- Frenchie David;  De’Borah
USA 2013 -- Michelle Chamuel

Australia 2010 -- Harry Abu;  Michael Maiolo
Australia 2012 -- Justin Standley
Australia 2013 -- Ofisa Tee Toleafoa
Israel 2014 -- Rose Fostanes
UK 2006 -- David Heath (with the group Eton Road)
UK 2009 -- Danyl Johnson;  Joe McElderry
UK 2011 -- Marcus Collins;  Craig Colton
UK 2012 -- Christopher Maloney;  Jaymi Hensley (with the group Union J);  Jade Ellis;  Rylan Clarke;  Lucy Spraggan
USA 2012 -- Don Philip

Before I sign off for today I’ll bring the list right up to date. I mentioned the new series of “X-Factor” started at the weekend. At my workplace are several offices of several businesses. One of them recently employed a gay man who works part-time as make-up artist to one of the gay contestants in the new series (he won't tell me his name).

Saturday, 30 August 2014

The Musical Legacy of Oz

The most lasting legacy from the musical score of “The Wizard of Oz” is the song “Over the Rainbow”. The song became such an overnight favourite that people are still recording their own versions of the song today.

To the lgbt community the rainbow gained significance with the gradual adoption of the Rainbow Pride flag. It is often assumed that the song inspired the flag. Gilbert Baker, the flag’s creator, has put it on record that he didn’t have “Over the Rainbow” or “The Wizard of Oz” in mind when he made his first flags in 1978.

The film itself has also left a legacy. Many remakes, reboots, re-imaginings, sequels, prequels and parodies have been made. Many times new songs and new music has been written. Perhaps the most famous song inspired by Oz actually doesn’t come from any of them. Elton John’s song “Goodbye Yellow Brick Road” is the title track form his 1973 album. The album was reissued earlier this year.

Instead of going into a list of music by lgbt and straight artists inspired by “The Wizard of Oz” here’s three videos illustrating 3 different ways in which that inspiration saw light.

First is “Goodbye Yellow Brick Road” itself, representing the many songs that have no Oz connection other than being the source of inspiration.

Secondly is a song from a “remake” of the film, a re-imagining from the 1980s tv series “Fame” (the grown-up version of “Twee” – sorry, “Glee”).

Lastly, a song from a re-imagining of sorts, “Wicked”. This musical, written by Stephen Schwartz, and based on a novel by the gay writer Gregory Maguire, tells the story from the viewpoint of the Wicked Witch of the West. I’ve chosen one of the more well-known songs from the show, as performed at the 2006 Tony Awards.


Wednesday, 27 August 2014

Exactly How Many Ruby Slippers Have You Got, Dorothy?

Perhaps the most enduring appeal of “The Wizard of Oz” is its visual element. The costumes have become iconic with copies of Dorothy’s blue pinafore dress and ruby slippers popping up at fancy dress parties, drag shows, Pride parades, and just about everywhere else. The actual costumes from the film fetch thousands of pounds at auction.

The famous ruby slippers don’t appear in the book from which the film was based. Dorothy wore silver shoes and the ruby ones were created to give a more visual impact on the colour film. The decision to change them is credited to one of the film’s screenwriters, Noel Langley. The slippers themselves, and their rediscovery were the work of two gay men – costume designer Adrian (1903-1959) and costume collector Kent Warner (1943-1984).

Because of their special iconic status the ruby slippers are well covered on the internet with hundreds of websites, blogs and videos dedicated to them alone. It would be pointless for me to compete with them and write a definitive article. So here’s a brief look at Adrian and Kent Warner.

Adrian (full name Adrian Adolph Greenberg) was chief costume designer at MGM studios. He had been a prolific designer since the days of silent film in 1925. Over 200 films have Adrian’s name attached to them. Apart from “The Wizard of Oz” his most famous films include “The Great Ziegfeld” (1936), “Pride and Prejudice” (1940) and Hitchcock’s “Rope” (1948). The list of stars for whom Adrian designed dresses and gowns reads like a Who’s Who of Hollywood greats – Greta Garbo, Joan Crawford, Katherine Hepburn, Jean Harlow, and many others.

When commissioned for the Oz film Adrian designed hundreds of individual costumes (over 100 for the Munchkins alone), though he did “borrow” old costumes from previous projects. The gown worn by Glinda, for instance, was originally created for Jeanette MacDonald in the film “San Francisco” (1936).

Adrian’s original design for the ruby slippers resembled Arabian shoes with curled up toes. These were rejected because they looked too exotic on the feet of an ordinary girl from Kansas. The red sequins, however, were kept for the subsequent slippers (of which at least 5 different pairs are known to exist). One alteration, made by the gay director George Cukor on his few days as director, was the addition of red bows.

I’ve just made a throw-away remark about the number of ruby slippers that exist. As in modern films and tv several identical costumes are made, some for stunt/body doubles, others reserved in case of damage to the original. No-one knows for sure how many ruby slippers were made, but if it wasn’t for Kent Warner only one pair would exist today.

There may be more value in having only one existing pair, but they have exerted such an influence over costume collectors’ imaginations that they can still fetch thousands of dollars at auction (the most recent pair went for over $666,000).

Two events occurred at about the same time that meant the slippers gained a new significance.

The first was the untimely death of Judy Garland in 1969. As with all famous stars her death saw an increase in interest in everything about her. This was most notably so within the gay community who had regarded Judy as one of their champions for years, and her death is inextricably linked to the Stonewall Riots that occurred the night after her death.

The second event was the sale of MGM studios in 1970. Everything in storage was to be auctioned off – sets, furniture, props and costumes. After the production of each film everything was saved for future use in other films. In fact, only the mundane objects were reused. Elaborate costumes and props hardly ever were used again unless a sequel was made. The fantastic costumes of Oz were destined to remain in storage, gathering dust and moths, until they disintegrated. In 1970 a huge auction sale was arranged for all the items that were still in good shape, the rest was junked. The man chosen to trawl through the costume stores and catalogue everything for sale was Kent Warner.

Kent Warner has been a fan of Adrian’s work since childhood and entered the film industry himself as a costume designer. He had worked for MGM and other studios. He was also an avid collector of film memorabilia, particularly costumes, for both his own enjoyment and for profit. To this end he and his boyfriend Ron Wind often “took” costumes that had been placed in storage for years (and in all probability never to be used again). He also searched through rubbish bins and skips for items that had been thrown away.

Over the years Kent amassed a collection of many costumes from famous films. Knowing his keen interest in historic film costumes the new MGM owners asked him to go through their warehouses and stores. It must have been an Aladdin’s cave for him.

It is known that Kent discovered at least 5 pairs of ruby slippers, including the Arabian pair (one pair had been given as a competition prize in 1940 and was, until then, the only pair known to exist). Kent kept a pair of slippers for himself and sold several others. Only one pair was to be placed in the 1970 auction. With Judy Garland’s death barely a year beforehand these slippers acquired a special status – they didn’t even need to be labelled at the pre-auction viewing.

Whether there was a deliberate attempt by the new MGM owners to bump up the value of the slippers by only offering one pair for sale (as is likely) the anonymous buyer certainly thought they were the only pair that existed.

You can find out the fate of each pair of the existing ruby slippers by going online. Just google “ruby slippers”.

Perhaps the world can just about cope with 6 existing pairs of ruby slippers. Any more and their value would lessen. In this year when we commemorate the 75th anniversary of “The Wizard of Oz”, the 55th anniversary of the death of Adrian, the 45th anniversary of the death of Judy Garland, and the 30th anniversary of the death of Kent Warner, the ruby slippers are still glowing with their own special magic.

Sunday, 24 August 2014

Out of Their Trees : My Friend Dorothy

Believe it or not the iconic film “The Wizard of Oz” went on general release 75 years ago this week. It had been previewed 2 weeks earlier on 12th August. This week I’m celebrating the anniversary with Oz themed articles. In a couple of days I’ll look at one of the most recognisable and iconic items from the film and later at Oz-inspired music. But first I can’t resist concentrating on the ancestry of Dorothy herself – Judy Garland.

There’s a lot of research that has already been done on Judy’s family tree so I can’t claim to have done any original research myself today.

Judy Garland’s real name, as many people may know, was Frances Ethel Gumm. The Gumm family had been settled in Tennessee since before it became a state in 1796. The first of the family settlers was called Norton Gum (with one “m”). He married Sally Clampet shortly before this in 1793. They were among the first inhabitants of Jefferson township. From humble origins Norton became Constable of Rutherford County and overseer of the county highways within a year.

Several of Judy’s ancestral families bring out the darker side of history which most people with ancestry in the southern states will have. In 1861 the Civil War began in the United States. The divisive issue was slavery. Most of Judy’s Tennessee ancestors – the Gums, the Baughs and the Marables – all owned slaves, many of them. This seems strange to me as these families were devout Methodists, members of a church founded by an anti-slavery campaigner. How ironic it is, then, that one of their descendants, Judy Garland, should become an icon of another much abused section of society of more modern times.

Shortly after the outbreak of war Judy’s great-grandfather, John Aldridge Baugh, became a sergeant in the Millersburg Militia, a brigade of the 2nd Tennessee Confederate Infantry Regiment. On 30th December 1862 a Union army approached Murfreesboro, home town of Judy’s Gum, Baugh and Marable ancestors at the time. That night the Union soldiers camped near the town and sang to keep up their spirits.

The Confederate soldiers, including John Aldridge Baugh, camped out in the outskirts of the town ready to defend Murfreesboro. In an event reminiscent of the Christmas truce in the trenches of 1914 the Confederates joined in the singing. It was a popular song they all knew and it helped to remind them all of what each side was trying to defend. The name of the song they sang on that cold winter night? “There’s No Place Like Home”.

New Year 1862/3 was spent in battle outside Murfreesboro. It was one of the most bloody of all in Tennessee with over 23,000 killed.

We’ll move now to Judy Garland’s royal ancestry because it reveals her family’s involvement in another civil war. After several decades of misidentification, both accidental and deliberate, Judy’s royal line was only officially confirmed by genealogists in 2004. This was when it was proven that Judy’s grandmother Clementina (1857-1895) was the daughter of John Aldridge Baugh. Clementina married William Tecumseh Gumm (1859-1906) in 1877. William’s unusual middle is a reference to a chieftain of the Shawnee Native American tribe of the same name who was held in high regard for his courage.

John Aldridge Baugh’s own grandmother was Agnes Batte. Her ancestry has been well documented for over a century having come from a well-known family of early settlers in Virginia. John Batte (1606-1654), Agnes’s great-great-grandfather settled in the colony in 1646. The Battes came from Yorkshire in northern England (lots of the family still live there though they now often spell their name Battie or Batty). John Batte’s wife was Martha Mallory, whose ancestry is full of influential and titled Northern families and is descended from King John.

John Batte’s father Henry was a Cavalier officer, one of the Royalists who supported King Charles I in the English Civil War. The Mallorys were also prominent Cavaliers and when the English Civil War ended with victory for the opposing Roundheads (the Parliamentary army) it was prudent for the defeated Royalist and Cavaliers to head abroad for safety. Anyone with Royalist sympathies would have been targeted for violence or even imprisonment.

There are some online genealogies which give Judy Garland royal descents from King James IV of Scotland (1473-1513) and King Edward III of England (1312-1377). Having checked these lines I find there are several misidentifications and don’t support them.

And finally, it is well-known that millions of people have royal ancestors, including myself. So I don’t find it particularly strange that Judy is distantly related to another of King John’s descendants by the name of Lyman Frank Baum (1856-1919). If you’re not familiar with that name I’ll tell you that he was an American author who wrote a children’s book published in 1900 called “The Wonderful Wizard of Oz”.

Thursday, 21 August 2014

From the Far Side of the Globe : West

Living 50 miles west of the Greenwich Meridian my final hunt for the most far-flung of Gay Games medallists brings me “back home”, taking the meridian as my most westerly point.

It’s a pity that the only out gay UK soccer player, Liam Davis, hasn’t competed at the Gay Games. No-one gets closer than him to the meridian. He plays for Gainsborough (0° 46’ W), where most of my family live and where I lived for a few years. Liam actually lives in the seaside town (and location of many happy childhood holidays) of Cleethorpes (0° exactly). With his partner he co-owns a café which is less than 1km from the meridian line.

The Greenwich Meridian passes through a handful of countries – the UK, France, Spain, Algeria, Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana and Togo. These last 5 are all in Africa and are not known for their lgbt rights. However, both Ghana and Algeria have sent athletes to the Gay Games though none have won medals.

Which leaves us looking at the European nations, all highly represented in international sport. To be fair to all 3 countries I’ve nominated one athlete from each to represent their nation as a whole.

With France being the European country through which the meridian passes for the longest there are a large number of possible locations to find my nomination as the most westerly French medallist. My nomination is Pierre Huguet. Pierre, a history teacher, won a gold and 2 bronze medals in 3 relay teams at the 2010 Cologne Gay Games. He was living in Marseille at the time and ran with several international runners who teamed up at the contest. He also won an individual silver medal in the 300m steeplechase.

Pierre’s hometown in Niort (0° 27’ W) and he studied at the University of Poitiers (0° 20’ E) just across the meridian. Pierre is a committee member and co-webmaster of Frontrunners Marseille. He is also an honorary members of Glasgow Frontrunners, a club he visited in 2012 just after it was formed.

Surprisingly few Spanish athletes have won medals at the Gay Games. Some may have joined teams from other nations (e.g. if working or studying abroad). My nomination for the most westerly Spanish medallist is Natividad Pericot Roos. Her home town is San Vicent del Raspeig (0° 31’ W) and she works in Alicante (0° 28’ W). Natividad is another tenpin bowler (we had Dion Leslie of New Zealand last time). At the Cologne Gay Games in 2010 she picked up a gold medal with the women’s social team contest (with Caroline Lacharte and Stefanie Goss) and a bronze with Caroline in the women’s social team doubles.

With the meridian passing through London there are dozens of athletes to choose as the most westerly British medallist. I’ve nominated Simon Bostic. His life story deserves a little more attention as he has provided a legacy with has affected thousands and inspired millions.

In 1973 Simon was less than 2 years old and doctors said he wouldn’t see his 3rd birthday because he was born with CGD (chronic granulomautus disease), a condition where bone marrow can’t produce fully effective white blood cells. People with HIV will know the health implications of this. Any infection could be life-threatening. His older brother Andrew had died of CGD at the age of 2 and his own only hope of survival was a bone marrow transplant.

There was no bone marrow match in Simon’s family so a media appeal was launched and 50,000 people volunteered for testing. Only one was a match. The transplant took place on Friday 13th April 1973 and was a success. (On a future Friday 13th I’ll go into more detail.) Simon’s place in medical history is assured as the first survivor of a bone marrow transplant from a total stranger, a non-relative.

Since the transplant Simon has inspired hope in other bone marrow patients and has been instrumental in inspiring millions of people to register as possible donors. Until Simon’s successful operation the only real incentive to donate bone marrow was help to a close relative. Now anyone in the world could be considered a possible match.

At the Gay Games in Amsterdam in 1998 Simon won a silver medal in the Latin dance category with Alan Charles Wale. Today Simon works for Charity Challenge which organises expeditions to raise funds for various charities. He was head of Operations for the 2010 Comic Relief climb up Mount Kilimanjaro of which Martina Navratilova took part.

I hope you found this little series of articles interesting, but if I had to choose only one nomination from each of the four points they’d be the following:

North  Bjarni Snæbjörnsson, Sveinseyri, Iceland (65°N).
South  Mariah Crosland, McMurdo Station, Antarctic (77°S).
East    Rae Torrie, Gisborne, New Zealand (178°E).
West   Simon Bostic, London (0°).

Monday, 18 August 2014

From the Far Side of the Globe : East

From the cold climates of Alaska and Iceland we head east and somewhere a bit warmer. My criteria for the most easterly of the Gay Games medallists is the point furthest from the Greenwich Meridian along, or near, 180°E in the Pacific Ocean.

Several Pacific nations have sent teams to the Gay Games, most of them attending their nearest games held in Sydney in 2002. One island nation which straddles the 180° meridian is Fiji. They sent a team to Sydney but didn’t return home with any medals.

New Zealand is the country with the nearest land to the 180° meridian. As with my previous articles it has been difficult to ascertain for certain where medallists called home at the time of their medal win. Many athletes don’t live in the cities or towns in which they have membership to a sports club, for instance members of Team Wellington (based on North Island) may live over 50 miles away on South Island but official results only record their team name. So once again I’m looking at birthplaces or previous residences.

The two main cities on North Island, Wellington and Auckland, have both sent many athletes to the Gay Games. As it happens they are on almost identical degrees of longitude (Auckland 174° 44’ E; Wellington 174° 46’ E), and they include such varied individuals as the partner of the Mayor of Kapiti, the grandson of an All Blacks rugby player, and the same-sex marriage campaigner who got arrested.

But I need to look further east than either city if I want to find the most easterly Gay Games medallist. I’ve chosen to name three of these briefly, all of whom have lived beyond 176°E.

First of all is Kerry Stevens. Kerry was born in Dannevirke (176°E), a town in the south of North Island. He married in 1963 and moved to Nelson on South Island where he began working in the music industry at the South Island Organ Company. In 1994 he attended the Gay Games in New York and won 2 gold medals as part of the 4x100m relay team (with Ross Baxter, Ron Judd and Berend Westera). He also won an individual silver in the 100m backstroke and a bronze in the 100m breaststroke.

More recently Kerry has been a broadcaster and executive producer at radio New Zealand where he presented mainly musical programmes and interviews. His interest in music is also reflected in his membership of Gay and Lesbian Singers in Auckland.

Just a little further east of Kerry’s home town of Dannevirke is the city of Hastings (176° 51’ E) on the eastern coast of North Island. This is the hometown of a medallist who competes in a sport that isn’t in the Olympics – tenpin bowling.

Dion Leslie has made tenpin bowling his career. He had been playing bowls since he was a teenager, and in 2002, at the age of 21, entered the bowling competition at the Sydney Gay Games. He came away with a bronze medal.

Dion moved to Wellington to study commerce and administration, something which he combined with his love of bowling by working in a bowling centre in Porirua. In 1999 he became general manager of the Strike Entertainment Centre in Lower Hutt, Wellington. This meant he was in the perfect place to host the bowling competition for the 2nd Asia-Pacific Outgames held in Wellington in 2011. He even found time to enter the competition himself, winning a silver medal in the men’s doubles contest.

Dion’s Strike Entertainment bowling alley also hosted a World Record. In 2002 Dion organised a record attempt at the world’s longest continuous game of tenpin bowling. The bowler was Stuart Ripley, and he succeeded in breaking the record by bowling for 122 hours!

Now we come to the athlete who is the medallist to come from the most easterly point on the globe. Her name is Rae Torrie.

The most easterly town on North Island is Gisborne (178°E). This where Rae was born, and like many she went to Wellington to university. She studied history and went on to study Social Sector Evaluation Research at Massey University. Most of her work has involved evaluating employment and pay policies in local and national government, but her early work involved evaluation of equal employment policies and Maori affairs.

In 2002 Rae entered the dance competition at the Sydney Gay Games. Her dance partner was Ros Bignell and they won a silver medal in the Latin category.

Now that we have gone as far east as we can go we head west next time. Rather than keep going west and end up almost back where we started we go to the far side of the globe and look for our most westerly Gay Games medallist on the Greenwich Meridian.

Friday, 15 August 2014

Passing the Torch to the Youth

You probably know what Sochi 2014 means. You probably know what London 2012 and Rio 2016 mean. But what about Nanjing 2014? Not many people are aware that the Olympic movement organises games for teenagers – the Youth Olympics. And as one international sports festival (the Gay Games in Cleveland) comes to a close another (the 2014 Youth Olympics) opens in Nanjing, China.

The Youth Olympic Games (summer and winter) are restricted to athletes from the age of 15 to 18 (those aged 14 are eligible if they reach 15 before 31st December of the Youth Olympic year). This highlights one of the many anomalies and inconsistencies in IOC ruling in that there have been many athletes who have competed at the main Olympics before they were 14!

The youngest lgbt Olympian certainly wouldn’t have qualified. At the Innsbruck Winter Olympics in 1964 figure skater Ondrej Nepela competed less than 2 weeks after his 13th birthday. Ironically, he would have qualified for the Youth Olympics (had they been held) in 1968.

The idea for the Youth Olympics has been around for decades but the International Olympic Committee didn’t create an official games until 2007. These are the host cities of the summer and winter Youth Olympics :

Summer 2010             Singapore
Winter 2012                 Innsbruck, Austria
Summer 2014             Nanjing, China
Winter 2016                 Lillehammer, Norway
Summer 2018             Buenos Aries, Argentina.

During the London 2012 Olympics a lot was made of the fact that London was the first city to host the summer games 3 times. Indeed it was, but Innsbruck beat London to the first 3-time host record by hosting its third Winter Olympics earlier that year.

Even though many in the lgbt community don’t recognise or question their sexuality until after their teenage years there hasn’t been (to my notice) any Youth Olympians who were “out” as lgbt when they competed. However, it is possible to name the first out athletes from both the summer and winter Youth Olympics – Tom Daley and John Fennell, respectively.

The age restriction at the Youth games also means that British diver Tom Daley was able to compete in 3 Olympics in less than 5 years. When Tom competed in Beijing in 2008 he was 14. The first Youth Olympic summer games were held in 2010, so he qualified to compete there as well. Still only 18 in 2012 Tom competed in the London Olympics and won a bronze medal.

John Fennell came from a big sporting family. His father David, for instance, is a legend in Canadian sport, a Canadian football league player. In 2012 John competed in the first Youth Winter Olympics, finishing 7th in the luge contest. He came out to the Canadian Chef de Mission, Olympic star Mark Tewksbury, just before this year’s Sochi games in which he again competed in the luge.

There have been a few lgbt Olympians who would have been eligible for a Youth Olympics had they been held before 2010. Just out of my own curiosity I compiled the list below. For the purpose of this list I am applying the present Youth Olympic age criteria to the historic Olympic Games.
Berlin 1936
Dora Ratjen (Germany, athletics), 17 years.
Helen Stephens (USA athletics), 18 years.
Melbourne 1956
Susan Gray McGreivy (USA, swimming), 17 years.
Tokyo 1964
Marion Lay (Canada, swimming), 15 years.
Ewa Klobukowska (Poland, athletics), 17 years.
Grenoble 1968
Ondrej Nepela (Czechoslovakia, figure skating), 17 years.
Mexico City 1968
Karin Büttner-Janz (East Germany), 16 years.
Raelene Boyle (Australia, athletics), 17 years.
Munich 1972
Scott Cranham (Canada, diving), 17 years.
Innsbruck 1976
Randy Gardner (USA, figure skating), 17 years.
Montréal 1976
Greg Louganis (USA, diving), 16 years.
Sarajevo 1984
Edel Høiseth (Norway, speed skating), 18 years.
Los Angeles 1984 (demonstration sport)
Tine Scheuer-Larsen (Denmark, tennis), 18 years.
Seoul 1988
Jhonmar Castillo (Venezuela, diving), 17 years.
Sydney 2000
Eleni Daniilidou (Greece, tennis), 17 years.
Lauren Meece (USA, judo), 17 years.
London 2012
Jack Laugher (GB, diving), 17 years.
Tom Daley (GB, diving), 18 years.
Sochi 2014
John Fennell (Canada, luge), 18 years.