Thursday, 21 February 2019

The Forgotten Victims of Franco

Eighty years ago this month the Spanish Civil War was nearing its end. On 27th February 1939 Britain and France recognised the government of Gen. Francisco Franco and his Nationalists as the legitimate government of Spain. The war went on for several more months until Franco declared the war had ended on 1st April.

Until Franco came to power Spain’s lgbt community had “enjoyed” a higher degree of freedom than most of Europe. Sodomy had been decriminalised in 1882 and the Second Republic (1931-1939) had been more liberal than the preceding monarchy. The power of the aristocracy and the Catholic Church had been reduced.

All that changed when Franco took over. The Catholic Church regained its political powers and things like abortion and divorce were made illegal. Although there was no new law re-criminalising homosexuality or sodomy the lgbt community saw an increase in opposition and victimisation.

In 1954 Franco reformed Spain’s 1933 Vagrancy Law to include homosexuality, thereby making it illegal once more. To the Nationalist government this was a step made to “correct and reform” homosexuals rather than punish them. But punish them they did with harassment, arrest and torture. In 1971 homosexuality was declared a mental illness rather than a crime with the introduction of the Law of Dangerousness and Social Rehabilitation. Gay men were sent to “correction camps” for “corrective treatment”, or physical and psychological abuse, as we would recognise it today.

Even after months of this forced “therapy” convicted homosexuals had little chance of finding employment afterwards as the police would inform employers of their employee’s record as a homosexual.

When homosexuality was legalised once more in Spain in 1979 (40 years ago this year) several years after Franco’s death, democracy, the monarchy and more liberalism were introduced. However, men and women who had been still convicted for their homosexuality were still being discriminated against. In 1976 the Spanish government issued pardons to all political prisoners under Franco, but not to homosexuals as it was still classed as a “mental Illness” that required “correction”.

It wasn’t until this century that the Spanish government decided to finally wipe out the convictions of all those who were convicted of homosexuality or underwent treatment. Homosexuality had been legalised two years earlier. Those who had been affected felt that there should be more than a pardon. More than anything, many of them called for financial reparation to cover the hardships they had endured because of their convictions.

In 2004 the Association of Ex-Social Prisoners of Spain was formed. Antoni Ruiz, its president and one of Franco’s victims, had been arrested and convicted of homosexuality in 1975. He was jailed, raped by other prisoners and subjected to psychological torture by the prison authorities. After years of campaigning the government agreed to give financial payments to Ruiz and all surviving victims of Franco’s homophobic laws. In 2009 Antoni Ruiz was the first to receive any of this compensation, receiving 4,000 euros.

Each case for compensation that goes before the Commission for Compensation of Former Social Prisoners is treated individually. As of January 2018 only 116 people had been successful in their case. I have no data for the thirteen months since then.

While the persecution of gay men and women by the Nazis has become deeply engraved into lgbt heritage the persecution in Franco’s Spain, which went on long after the Nazis were defeated, has gone largely unnoticed outside Spain. Unlike the Holocaust there are no memorials to Franco’s lgbt victims and many people today are surprised that Spain, a nation that has been in the forefront of lgbt rights in the 21st century, has had such a recent homophobic past.

Sunday, 17 February 2019

Out Of His Tree: Dag Hammarskjold

The United Nations has helped to keep the countries of the world talking to each other since 1945. Whereas diplomats and ambassadors keep dialogue open between one nation and another the UN is where each nation comes together.

The second Secretary General of the UN, Dag Hammarskjöld (1905-1961), was the highest ranking lgbt official in the organisation, though his sexuality was private. Several years ago I produced a hypothetical heraldic achievement for Dag Hammarskjöld based on his family coat of arms. Today we look at his ancestry to discover how significant his family background and ancestry was in determining his career.

Most of Dag Hammarskjöld’s ancestry takes us back to late medieval Sweden and many noble families and military leaders. His father, Hjalmar Hammarskjöld (1862-1953), had perhaps the biggest influence on Dag. Hjalmar served as Prime Minister of Sweden during World War I. He became involved in international diplomacy in 1904 when he was appointed to the Permanent Court of Arbitration, one of the first organisations which oversaw disputes between nations in an attempt to find a peaceful resolution. It still exists, though much of its work is overshadowed by the UN.

Shortly after Hjalmar became Prime Minister in 1914 World War I broke out. However, Hjalmar was accused of being too “friendly” towards Germany and caused a split between himself and his Foreign Minister, leading to his resignation in 1917.

Hjalmar became Chairman of the Nobel Foundation from 1929 to 1947. His son Dag would be awarded a posthumous Nobel Peace Prize. Hjalmar died several months after Dag became Secretary General of the UN.

The known origins of the Hammarskjöld family go back five hundred years. The founder of the dynasty was Peder Mikaelsson (c.1560-1646). Peder was a career soldier who fought in the army of the king of Poland and later the king of Sweden. In 1610 the king of Sweden knighted him and this was when he adopted the family name of Hammarskjöld. Peder was later given lands in Kalmar county in Sweden, some of which are still held by his descendants.

Peder Mikaelsson Hammarskjöld married twice. Descendants of both marriages have provided Sweden with many soldiers, layers and diplomats. Dag Hammarskjöld descends from Peder’s second marriage to Kristina Stjerna, a cousin of his first wife. It is through Kristina that we find the first of Dag Hammarskjöld’s royal bloodlines. Kristina is descended from the 10th and 11th century kings of Sweden, Denmark and France. Through them and the other kings I’ll mention later Dag is descended from the semi-legendary “Peace Kings of Uppsala”, the Ynglings, a sacred pagan dynasty that stretches back into the so-called Dark Ages.

Among Dag’s Scandinavian kingly ancestors was King Harald Blåtand “Bluetooth” (911-986). It is Harald’s name that was given to the modern technological device that many people possess today. The name was chosen because King Harald united several tribes into a united nation.

Once Peder Mikaelsson Hammarskjöld had become a landowning knight with an aristocratic wife he was officially aristocratic himself. His direct descendants married into other aristocratic families. Peder’s great-great-grandson Carl Gustaf Hammarskjöld (1729-1797) rose to become Swedish court Chamberlain. His aristocratic wife was Catharina Breitholtz (1748-1812).

The Brietholtz family can be traced back to the 13th century. They became leading families in what could be regarded as a medieval version of the European Union, the Hanseatic League. This was a network of city states and merchant guilds from around the Baltic and North Seas who travelled and traded all over Europe. They were a dominant economic entity for several centuries and had ports and trading posts in many other European cities, often accompanied by a consulate.

Catharina Brietholtz’s mother, Baroness Eleanore Koskull (1797-1781), has two illegitimate lines of descent from King Erik XIV Gustaf Vasa of Sweden (1533-1577).

Moving onto Dag Hammarskjöld’s mother we find fewer distinguished ancestors but they, none-the-less, still have influential links.

Dag’s maternal grandfather was Gustaf Fridoltz Almqvist (1814-1886). He was a senior lawyer and judge of the Swedish Court of Appeal. He was also a leader in the reform of prisons and the treatment of prisoners. In 1867 he was appointed the Director General of the Prison Care Authority. Among his achievements was the halt to the unnecessary humiliating treatment generally given to prisoners, and in the setting up of education and vocational courses in prisons.

It is Gustaf Almqvist’s wife who provides Dag Hammarskjöld with a really interesting family connection. Gustaf’s wife was Maria “Mina” Grandin. The Grandin family had a very modest background compared to the Almqvists. Mina’s father, or alleged father, if the family legend turns out to be true, was a tailor. However, the identity of Mina’s mother is certain – Maria Blomberg, a maid.

What the family legend says, which Dag Hammarskjöld himself knew about, was that Mina Grandin was the illegitimate daughter of Crown Prince Oskar (later King Oskar II) of Sweden (1829-1907). Oskar was well-known as a womaniser and had several mistresses and known illegitimate children. Both the Almqvist and Hammarskjöld families have done extensive research into the legend and haven’t come up with any proof. The circumstantial evidence of Crown Prince Oskar and Mina’s mother being in the same location nine months before Mina’s birth does nothing to disprove the legend either.

It is known that Crown Prince Oskar knew Gustaf Almqvist and shared his views on prison reform. The fact that Gustaf, a high-flying lawyer and friend of royalty would marry Mina, a former restaurant waitress and daughter of a maid only adds more circumstantial evidence that Mina may have more to her family background than at first appears.

Even without this family legend that Dag’s great-grandfather could have been King Oskar II there’s much in his ancestry to show a family tradition of service to the crown and country. From the Peace Kings of Uppsala, the unifying King Harald Bluetooth, the international Hanseatic League, to the Premiership of Sweden and Chair of the Nobel Foundation, Dag Hammarskjöld’s ancestry led him to the United Nations and his Nobel Peace Prize.

Wednesday, 13 February 2019

Scandal in the Navy at the YMCA

One of the concerns still providing much debate, especially in Donald Trump’s America, is the acceptance and inclusion of lgbt personnel in the armed forces. The focus at the moment for Trump’s regime is the presence of transgender personnel.

For seven years, from 1994 to 2011, the USA imposed a “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” policy in which lgbt personnel had to publicly hide or deny their sexuality in order to remain in the armed forces. The policy itself has a long history of its own which was in some respects influenced by a scandal which began 100 year ago this month in the US Navy. Wikipedia refers to it as “the Newport Sex Scandal”.

Modern madge of the US naval station
at Newport, Rhode Island.
The scandal began in February 1919 in the naval training hospital in Newport, Rhode Island. In the months prior to this reports of homosexual behaviour at several other naval training stations had reached the US Judge Advocate General. The reports he received from Newport were considered much more serious as Newport was a major naval base.

Events began to unfold when Chief Machinist’s Mate Ervin Arnold was admitted to the hospital with acute rheumatism. He was a self-confessed “gay hunter”, claiming to be able to identify a gay man by his behaviour and speech. He had been a detective before enlisting in the navy and began his witch-hunt of gay men long before arriving in Newport.

Arnold was first made aware of gay activity in and around Newport after talking with two other patients, Samuel Rogers and Thomas Brunelle who both made Arnold’s “gaydar” ping. Thomas Brunelle, rather unwisely, described Samuel Rogers’ reputation as a “pogue”, a man who prefers being a passive gay partner in sex. Even more unwisely Brunelle went on to tell Ervin Arnold of other gay men in the naval station and Newport. This set Arnold on his campaign to hunt down all the gay men in town and lock them up.

Arnold coaxed out more information and was told of the regular gay meeting spots, especially the Newport Army and Navy YMCA and the Newport Art Association.

The Army and Navy YMCA seemed to be the major meeting place, with several of its staff also being gay men. Arnold took his collected information to the station commander, Lt. Cdr. Murphy Foster. Even before Foster had agreed to an inquiry, which would go on to recommend using trained investigators to collect more evidence, Arnold was recruiting sailors to act as spies and pose as homosexuals in order to gather more detailed reports of their activities, however explicit, and however much the spies participated in sexual acts.

Newport Army and Navy YMCA as it looks today.
Foster’s inquiry was passed on to the US Attorney General who handed the investigation over to the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, someone who went on to become US President, Franklin D. Roosevelt. Roosevelt immediately authorised a full investigation to be led by the gay-hunter himself, Ervin Arnold.

Arnold instructed his spies to use any means to get their evidence, including taking part in sexual activity. By April 1919 there was enough evidence to have 17 sailors arrested based on the spies’ entrapment techniques. Fifteen of the sailors were found guilty of homosexual behaviour and court-martialled. Two were given dishonourable discharges.

What turned the gay witch-hunt into a public scandal against the US navy was the arrest of the naval chaplain, Rev. Samuel Neal Kent on 31st July 1919. Rev. Kent was an Episcopalian priest who had been a military chaplain since 1917 and was appointed as assistant chaplain to the Newport naval hospital during the flu epidemic on 1918. Following the Armistice Rev. Kent remained at Newport.

Ervin Arnold and his spies had seen Rev. Kent visiting the Army and Navy YMCA daily with various men, both military and civilian. Arnold had already established that the YMCA was a regular gay meeting place and it was obvious to him that there was no other reason that there was another reason why Rev. Kent visited the building so often. Arnold instructed his spies to entrap the minister. Their “evidence” led to Rev. Kent’s arrest on eleven counts of “lewd and scandalous behaviour”.

It was at Rev. Kent’s trial that Arnold’s disgraceful techniques were made public. The previous trials of the 17 sailors were military and private. The testimony of Arnold’s spires and the vigour with which the prosecutors handled the case outraged the public more than the idea that an ordained priest was homosexual. Rev. Kent was one of the most respected, liked and honest people in Newport. There was no problem in gathering enough character witnesses to attest to his trusted reputation. The jury agreed, and Rev. Kent was found not guilty, mainly because Arnold’s spies acted under unlawful commands and their evidence could not be accepted. A second federal trial against Rev. Kent also found him not guilty.

By the end of the two trials the public were demanding a response from the navy. A group of clergy presented a letter to US President Woodrow Wilson denouncing the navy’s action against Rev. Kent. Assistant Secretary of the Navy Roosevelt went on the offensive, claiming he was unaware of Ervin Arnold’s spies or their activities, and that adverse reaction to Kent’s trials would harm the navy’s reputation (as if they hadn’t already done so!). An investigation by the Senate Committee on Naval Affairs began, and in 1920 harshly criticised Roosevelt for his role in the scandal. By this time FDR had left the navy and entered politics, claiming personal political opposition as the reason for the Committee’s findings.

Nothing was done to recompense the sailors court-martialled, or Rev. Samuel Kent. Roosevelt carried on with his political career, refusing to make any further comment on his involvement in the scandal. Most of those accused died in obscurity. Rev. Kent’s reputation was tarnished, despite being found not guilty. His regular visits to the YMCA were seen as courting suspicion and the church gradually removed Kent’s pastoral duties over the new few years. He remained a respected member of the communities in which he lived and fulfilled several voluntary duties. He died in 1943.

The 1919 Newport navy scandal may seem a distant affair, but a hundred years later. There’s still government discrimination in the US military against a significant section of the lgbt community.

Saturday, 9 February 2019

20 Queer Facts for LGBT History Month UK

If you’re having an LGBT History Month celebration, or intend to have one for Pride Month or any future event, why not amaze your audience and get them talking with this list of facts and trivia about the lgbt community and its heritage. You can even adapt it into a “True of False” contest with your own added “False” questions.

1) The Ancient Greek astrologer Dorotheus of Sidon wrote that boys born when the planet Venus was in a particular alignment with the planet Saturn would grow up to be passive same-sex lovers, and girls born when Venus appeared as the Morning Star would become lesbian.

2) There are asteroids named after Jim Parsons and his “Big Bang Theory” character Sheldon Cooper, and his catchphrase “Bazinga” – yes, there’s an asteroid called Bazinga.

3) During World War II in America the words “gazoon” and “gazook” were slang names for a gay man, probably deriving from the French word “garçon”.

4) Suzy Solidor (1900-1983), a French lesbian cabaret singer, had her portrait painted in her lifetime more times than any other woman in history. There are at least 225 known portraits of her. Below are just a handful.

5) David Gerrold, the gay science-fiction writer and creator of the famous Tribbles in “Star Trek” (the original series), predicted the invention of the smart phone in 1999 before the technology existed to make it possible.

6) The Mattachine Society, a pioneering gay right organisation founded in 1950 in the USA, was named after a group of Medieval masked minstrels.

7) Lesbian novelist Selma Lagerlöf (1858-1940) won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1909, the first woman to do so.

8) The most prolific lgbt serial killer of the 20th century was Luis Alfredo Garavito (b.1957), who raped, tortured and murdered 147 boys in Columbia. He was sentenced to 1,853 years in prison.

9) The Makhlyes were a mythical tribe in North Africa who were female on one side of the body and male on the other. Their gender alternated, though ancient writers usually referred to them as female.

10) “Queen” James I of Great Britain set up a mulberry garden in St. James’s Park in 1609. Less than 50 years later it was the site of a gay brothel.

11) Before becoming Mr. Gay UK 2008, Dino Gamecho (a professional actor now using the stage name Dino Fetscher), appeared in three episodes of “Doctor Who” in 2007 – “The Sontaran Strategum”, “The Poison Sky” (seen below on the left) and “The Doctor’s Daughter”.

12) Only 2 lgbt athletes have competed at both the summer and winter Olympics Games. They are Chris Witty (USA) who competed in cycling and speed skating, and Georgia Simmerling (Canada) who competed in cycling, alpine skiing and freestyle skiing. Georgia is also the first Canadian and the only lgbt athlete to compete in 3 different sports in 3 different Olympic.

13) The first person tried and executed under England’s 1533 Buggery Act was Sir Walter Hungerford, 1st Baron Hungerford of Heytesbury (executed 1540).

14) In the walled city of the Siwa Oasis in a remote part of Egypt it was common for men to marry men. When they did so they could only have one spouse at a time, whereas in heterosexual marriages men could have several wives. The practice was stamped out by the Egyptian authorities when modern transport networks made the Siwa Oasis more accessible.

15) Ignoring all Mr. Gay or Miss Gay contests, Spain is the only country to have had an openly lesbian Miss Spain (2013), openly transgender Miss Spain (2018), and openly gay Mr. Spain (2016). Spain is the first and only country to have any openly lgbt winners in a non-lgbt national beauty pageant.

16) An African-American lesbian gospel singer called Sister Rosetta Tharpe (1915-1973) is generally credited with inventing Rock’n’Roll.

17) Tom Daley’s (below left) great-great-great-grandfather Alfred Foot (1872-1952) (below centre) was the uncle of Michael Foot (1913-2010) (below right), the former Labour Party leader and Leader of the Opposition to Mrs. Thatcher’s Prime Minister.

18) Seventh-Day Adventist Dr. John Kellogg believed that rich, fancy food led to sexual depravity, including masturbation and homosexuality. To prevent this happening he invented corn flakes. Another Seventh-Day Adventist invented Weetabix for the same reason.

19) Korophilia and parthenophilia are the female equivalents of paedophilia. Both terms are used to describe the sexual attraction of women to young girls.

20) Sarah Outen (b.1985) was (and still is) the youngest person to row solo across the Indian Ocean (1 April to 23 August 2009). On the Indian Ocean at the same time (28 April to 25 June 2009) Angela Madsen (b.1960) was (and still is) being the oldest woman to row any ocean. Sarah was the first woman and first lgbt person to set off on a successful ocean row, and Angela was the first lgbt person and the joint-first woman (with another woman on her crew) to finish a successful ocean row.

Tuesday, 5 February 2019

Being Diplomatic

When it comes to peace and reconciliation (two of the elements of the current LGBT History Month in the UK) the role of diplomacy plays an integral part. While the ambassadorial system may be open to political interference, and while the United Nations is far from perfect, the role of diplomats and ambassadors is a vital part of international understanding.

I’ve a couple of diplomatic connections on both sides of my family. Two cousins have served in diplomatic positions. My Dad’s nephew served as Third Secretary in the British embassy in Moscow, just as Communism collapsed. He retired shortly afterwards and was awarded the MBE (Member of the Order of the British Empire). My Mum’s nephew is a Methodist minister. Shortly after serving in Berlin when the Berlin Wall came down he was appointed as the ecumenical representative of the World Methodist Council to the Vatican.

Throughout history nations have been sending envoys to their neighbours to maintain relatively peaceful relations. Below I’ve listed those known members of the lgbt community who have been appointed as ambassadors or heads of diplomatic missions up to the present day.

Not all of those listed were openly lgbt when they were appointed. There are still too many governments who do not accept homosexuality, and the starting point for any nation who wishes to send an ambassador to a homophobic country is whether one who is openly gay would create a bad response than a heterosexual one.

Nations have to consider other social attitude in the ones to which their ambassadors are sent. There are still nations who would not accept ambassadors on racial, ethnic, gender or religious grounds. There was even a time wen some nations would not accept an ambassador’s from the UK who didn’t have a knighthood.

It’s not always governments who object to foreign ambassadors’ sexuality. There have been several occasions when an ambassador’s sexuality has created a diplomatic incident.

In 2006 the Dutch ambassador to Estonia, Hans Glaubitz, asked to be transferred to another embassy after his partner had received frequent racist and homophobic abuse from member of the public. He and his partner were transferred to Canada.

The Netherlands and Russia have had a delicate relationship in the past decade. The year 2013 was particularly fraught. A team of Dutch film-makers travelled to Russia to make a documentary about lgbt rights. They were deported. Later that year a Russian diplomat in The Hague claimed he was badly beaten up in his home by Dutch police. Despite there being no evidence of physical contact by the police there was a tit-for-tat response in Moscow when an openly gay Dutch diplomat was attacked in his home by members of the public who smeared his home with homophobic slogans.

Less than a year later the Chinese media became filled with homophobic abuse after it was revealed that the British Consul General in Shanghai had married his male partner in the British embassy in Beijing.

It’s not surprising that the Vatican would not openly welcome a gay ambassador. While not saying explicitly that they would not stop Laurent Stefanini from being appointed French ambassador to the Holy See, an alleged source within the Vatican was claimed to have called his possible appointment as “provocation”. In the end the French government sent Laurent to UNESCO as their Permanent Representative.
So, below is my list of lgbt ambassadors. I use the word “ambassador” as the umbrella term for a range of titles used for heads of diplomatic missions or embassies. These include Consul Generals who are head of regional diplomatic offices, and Chargés d’Affaires who head diplomatic offices where no full embassy has been formed. High Commissioners are the ambassadors sent between nations in the Commonwealth.

The following abbrevations and symbol are used:
Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation
non-resident (when appointed to several nations)
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Perm Rep
Permanent Representative
in office on 1st February 2019

A glitch during the posting of the original list led to several names being chopped off the end. Here is the full list as of February 2019. 

Brendan Berne
Amb to APEC 2015-7
Amb to France & non-res to
Algeria, Mauritania & Monaco 2017+
Neal Blewett (b.1933)
High Commr to UK 1994-6
Stephen Brady (b.1959)
Amb to Sweden & non-res to Denmark,
Norway, Finland, Iceland, Latvia
& Lithuania 1998-2003, Netherlands 2004-7,
Amb to France & non-res to Morocco 2014-17
John Dauth (b.1947)
interim Chargé d’Affaires in Iran 1983-5
Consul Gen to New Caledonia 1986-7;
High Commr to Malaysia 1993-6
High Commr to New Zealand 2006-8
High Commr to UK 2008-15
Perm Rep to UN 2001-6
Damien Miller
Amb to Denmark, Iceland & Norway 2013+
Perla Perdomo
High Commr to UK 2012+
John Wendell Holmes (1910-1988)
Interim Chargé d’Affaires 1947-8
Acting Perm Rep to UN 1950-3
Pedro Felipe Ramirez (b.1941)
Amb to Venezuela 2014-18
Jens Rudolph Dahl (1894-1977)
Vice-Consul in Hamburg 1930
Vice-Consul in New York 1933
A. Carsten Damsgaard (b.1955)
Amb to Israel 2003-8
Amb to Afghanistan 2010-11
Amb to Japan 2011-15
Amb to China & non-res to Mongolia 2015+
Gustav Rasmussen (1895-1953)
Amb to Rome 1951-3
Jussi Måkinen (1929-1978)
Amb to Algeria & non-res to Tunisia 1963-8
Amb to Libya 1966-8
Amb to Vatican  1968-76
Perm Rep to UN in Vienna 1968-76
Gerard Araud (b.1953)
Amb to Israel 2003-6
Perm Rep to UN 2009-14
Amb to USA 2014+
Jérôme Bonnafont (b.1961)
Amb to India 2007-11
Amb to Spain 2012-15
Roger Karoutchi (b.1951)
Amb to OECD 2009-11
Laurent Stefanini (b.1960)
Perm Rep to UNESCO 2016+
Philipp, Prince zu Eulenburg
Amb to Oldenburg 1888-91
Amb to Bavaria 1891-3
Amb to Vienna 1984-1902
Achim Holzenberger (b.1959)
Human Rights Rep to Council of Europe
Yitzhak Yanouka
Amb to Angola 2009+
Amb to Cote d’Ivoire & non-res to
Burkina Faso, Benin, Togo & Liberia 2014+
Hans Glaubitz
Amb to Estonia 2005-6
Consul Gen in Montreal 2006+
Gerda Verburg (b.1957)
Perm Rep to UN Food &
Agriculture Organisation 2011-6
Sir Alister McIntosh (1906-1978)
Amb to Rome 1966-70
POLAND (government in exile)
Stanisalw Balinski (1898-1984)
Amb to Czechoslovakia 1944-5
Rafael De Bustamante (b.1966)
First Counsellor, Jakarta, Indonesia 2016+
Ion de la Riva (b.1959)
Amb to India 2007-10
Perm Rep to UNESCO 2010-12
Enrique Sardá Valls (b.1952)
Consul Gen in Hanover 2003-6
Consul Gen in Sydney 2006-9
Consul Gen in Washington DC 2014-17
Clark Accord (1961-2011)
Amb to Netherlands 2011
Dverker Åstrom (1915-2012)
Perm Rep to UN 1964-70
Amb to France 1978-82
Richard Hoeppli
Hon Consul in Peking 1940s
James Clark (b.1963)
Amb to Luxemburg 2004-9
Consul Gen in Chicago 2007-10
Brian Davidson (b.1964)
Consul Gen in Guangzhou 2006-10
Consul Gen in Shanghai 2011-15
Amb to Thailand 2016+
Sir John Finch (1626-1682)
Min to Florence 1665-70
Amb to Constantinople 1672-81
Judith Gough (b.1972)
Amb to Georgia 2010-13
Amb to to Ukraine 2015+
John Kittmer (b.1967)
Amb to Greece 2013-6
Sir Gilbert Laithwaite (1894-1986)
Amb to Ireland 1949-51
High Commr to Pakistan 1951-4
Valentine Lawford (1911-1991)
Chargé d’Affaires in Tehran 1949-50
Sir George Lloyd,
1st Baron Lloyd (1879-1941)
High Commr in Egypt 1925-9
Sir Harold Nicolson (1886-1969)
Chargé d’Affaires in Tehran 1925
Chargé d’Affaires in Berlin 1928-9
David Quarrey (b.1956)
Amb to Israel 2015+
Simon Scaddan (b.1944)
High Cmmr to Papua New Guinea 2000-3
John Terry (1944-2009)
Hon Consul in Montego Bay, Jamaica
Sir George Villiers,
1st Duke of Buckingham (1592-1628)
English Amb to France 1625
English Amb Extraordinary to
the United Provinces (Netherlands) 1625
Sir Stephen Wall (b.1931)
Amb to Portugal 1993-5
Perm Rep to EU 1995-2000
Daniel Baer (b.1977)
Amb to OECD 2013-7
John Berry (b.1959)
Amb to Australia 2013-6
Randy W. Berry
Consul to Netherlands and
Special Envoy on LGBT Rights 2015+
James “Wally” Brewster jr (b.1960)
Amb to Dominican Rep 2013-7
James Buchanan (1791-1868)
(future US President)
Minister to Russia 1832-3
Minister to GB 1853-6
James Costos (b.1963)
Amb to Spain & non-res to Andorra 2013-7
Mark R. Dybul (b.1963)
Amb Global AIDS Co-ordinator 2006+
Robert Farmer (1939-2017)
Consul Gen in Bermuda 1994-9
Tom Gallagher (1940-2018)
Acting Consul Gen in Guayaquil, Ecuador 1976
Rufus Gifford (b.1974)
Amb to Denmark 2013-7
Richard Grenell (b.1966)
Amb to Germany 2018+
Michael Guest (b.1957)
Amb to Romania 2001-4
Richard E. Hoagland (b.1950)
Chargé d’Affaires to Turkmenistan 2007-8
Amb to Tajikistan & non-res to
Kazakhstan 2008-11
Dep Amb to Pakistan 2011-13
James Hormel (b.1922)
Amb to Luxembourg 1999-2001
David Huebner (b.1960)
Amb to New Zealand & Samoa 2009-14
Theodore “Ted” Osius III (b.1961)
Amb to Vietnam 2014-7
Bayard Taylor (1825-1878)
Envoy to Prussia 1878
Sumner Welles (1892-1961)
Amb to Cuba 1933