Sunday, 18 November 2018

Star Gayzing : When Galaxies Collide

You may not feel it, but another galaxy is crashing with our Milky Way.

Intergalactic collisions don’t take a matter of moments, they take billions of years. The effects are virtually imperceptible. In fact, the intergalactic smash that we are involved in at this very moment has been going on for such a long time and at such a slow speed, that nobody knew it was happening until 1994.

The galaxy which is colliding with us has been given the name the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy, which I’ll just shorten to Sagittarius galaxy for today (yes, astronomers among you, I do know there’s another galaxy far, far away with a similar name, but let’s keep things simple for today).

Before we move onto a theory proposed by a gay Canadian astronomer about how this Sagittarius galaxy has shaped the Milky Way, where it is in the sky? Obviously, it’s in the same part of the sky as the constellation of the same name. The Sagittarius galaxy, which is too far away to see without a telescope, loops around our Milky Way at almost 90 degrees above and below. The video below shows a speeded up computer simulation of what the collision might have looked like. It doesn’t matter if you don’t understand everything mentioned on screen – all you need to see is how the Milky Way and Sagittarius galaxy have collided.

As you can see the Sagittarius galaxy has looped around the Milky Way several times and is still doing so. The main part will arrive back in our area in about 10 million years time.

Astronomers think that the first collision 2 billion years ago helped to create the Milky Way’s spiral arms. That’s not certain, but what is certain is that the Milky Way isn’t as flat as you think, and that gay astronomer I mentioned above thinks that the Sagittarius galaxy is warping our own.

Imagine the Milky Way is a huge vinyl record with a bulge in the middle or a hat with a very wide brim. The edges are very slightly curved – up on one side and down on the other, just as if something was pulling them up and down. This warp was discovered in 1957, decades before the Sagittarius galaxy itself was discovered.

One scientist who is a specialist in researching how galaxies are formed is that gay astronomer, Dr. Jeremy Bailin, currently Associate Professor of Astronomy at the University of Alabama.

In 2003 Jeremy’s research into the Milky Way warp suggested that it was caused by the Sagittarius galaxy as it looped around. By analysing the angular momentum of the Sagittarius galaxy as it is now and the angular momentum of the warped edges on the Milky Way Jeremy theorised that the collision was the cause for the warp. Over the next billion years the warp will flatten out as the Sagittarius galaxy becomes absorbed into the Milky Way (if it ever does). Other astronomers have put forward other theories.

Beyond the outer edge of the Milky Way, as you can also see on the video, is a halo of material stretching out into space (I looks like an enormous M&M). Jeremy Bailin is also studying this halo. His research uses computer simulation like the one above, but the problem is that, at the moment, it’s difficult to create a computational model that accurately represents all the stars, interstellar material and their forces that actually exist. In simulations each star is represented as a “particle” There are billions of stars in a galaxy so a simulation has to use billions of particles to create something reasonably accurate. Jeremy has used supercomputers to develop a new modelling technique using just that – billions of particles.

Two years ago Jeremy was a member of the team involved in another project that compiled a map of our galaxy and its close neighbours as seen from Earth, what they call the full-sky survey. It shows where the hydrogen is located, hydrogen being the most common interstellar element. Just like maps of the Earth which are distorted when flattened out, this full-sky image is also distorted. Those bright blobs in the bottom right are the two Magellanic Clouds, satellite galaxies like the Sagittarius one but closer. They have also been suggested as the reason for the Milky Way warp. Below this image is a more familiar-looking picture of the full night sky.

One final thought. Other scientists have theorised that when the Sagittarius galaxy passes through or close by our Milky Way, as it has done several times, some stars will be pulled out of it and into our own. Our Sun is near the edge of our galaxy and very close to one of the Sagittarius loops. Could it be, those scientists postulate, that our Sun was one of the earliest stars plucked out of the Sagittarius galaxy? Dr. Jeremy Bailin’s research and computer simulation techniques may help to determine the true shape of our galaxy and its closest neighbours. Perhaps, one day, his research will also provide proof, one way or the other, if we are indeed from another galaxy.

Thursday, 15 November 2018

Around the World in Another 80 Gays : Part 32) Prussian Blues

Previously on “Another 80 Gays” : 64) Richard Püller von Hohenberg (d.1482) was burned at the stake on the orders of the Mayor of Zurich, whose current successor, 65) Corine Mauch (b.1960), has been nominated as World Mayor, an award for which Hamburg’s 66) Ole von Beust (b.1955) has previously been nominated, and who was Guest of Honour at a parade named after 67) Baron Friedrich von Steuben (1730-1794).

Von Steuben Day is a celebration of German heritage in the USA, notably in New York where the annual parade rivals the larger St. Patrick’s Day parade celebrating Irish heritage. Von Steuben Day was founded in 1957 by members of the German community in New York. The centrepiece is the parade through the streets. In 2006 66) Ole von Beust, First Mayor of Hamburg, was invited to be Guest of Honour at the New York parade.

67) Baron Friedrich von Steuben’s place as a hero of the American Revolution rests on his failure to overcome his debts and accusations of homosexuality in Europe. He wouldn’t have gone to America otherwise, and he had just the right amount of military experience the American army was looking for at the time.

Von Steuben had a glittering military career in the Prussian army. He rose to the rank of Captain and was twice wounded in action. He later became aide-de-camp to the king (more of whom later). At the end of the Seven Year’s War in 1763 the Prussian army was reorganised and von Steuben found himself out of a job, partly due to reports of his homosexuality. Looking around for another military position he settled on the position of Marshal to the Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen.

Facing mounting debts and threats to imprison him for his homosexuality von Steuben decided his best chance to improve his lot would be to go to America to join the revolutionaries against the British. Having learnt that Benjamin Franklin was in Paris he went to see him and offer his services. Franklin accepted and von Steuben arrived in America in 1777.

Remembering the USA’s “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” policy in the military regarding homosexuality it may surprise you to learn that Benjamin Franklin was aware of von Steuben’s sexuality and informed George Washington. In fact, Franklin was aware that von Steuben was about to be arrested for it and made sure the Prussian general was got out of Europe and into the US as soon as possible.

The revolutionary Continental Army under George Washington was a bit of a shambles. There was little overall strategy and soldiers were largely unaware of the full potential of their weapons. Von Steuben transformed them into a formidable fighting force. He reorganised training practices and introduced standard drills and equipment. He imposed stricter discipline and wrote the definitive manual on military regulations that was still being used twenty years after his death. While serving with the Continental Army von Steuben wore the uniform based on the colours of the British Whig party.

The newly established USA was without a real constitution and permanent government. The question of what kind of head of state they wanted was undecided for a long time. It’s likely that Baron von Steuben came up with the idea of a monarchy. As I mentioned in “Gameof Gay Thrones” von Steuben suggested offering the throne to an old friend of his, 68) Prince Heinrich von Hohenzollern of Prussia (1726-1802).

Prince Heinrich wasn’t entirely convinced a monarchy was appropriate for the USA, or that he was the fight person. No definite offer was made to him and the USA decided to go on the path of an elected president instead (I wouldn’t dare comment on whether this was a better choice or not, but most European monarchies approved of lgbt rights and equality before a certain republic on the other side of the Atlantic).

Whether Prince Heinrich was disappointed or not by not being offered the American crown isn’t known but that didn’t dampen his determination to obtain a throne elsewhere. However, all of his dreams of a throne were dashed. He tried to negotiate the creation of a sovereign principality for himself, which failed. He entered the Polish-Lithuanian election for their throne twice, the same throne that 59) Prince Louis II de Bourbon, Duke of Condé, had also twice failed to secure. Even Empress Catherine the Great of Russia thought about creating the kingdom of Wallachia (in present day Romania) for Heinrich, but this was vetoed by his own brother, 69) King Friedrich II von Hohenzollern “the Great” of Prussia (1712-1786).

Just like Baron von Steuben and Prince Heinrich, King Friedrich was partial to young military officers. His first real love when he was 18 years old was Hans von Katte. Friedrich’s father, King Friedrich Wilhelm I, would none of this kind of behaviour in his family and arrested them both. Hans was executed outside Friedrich’s prison window.

Hans von Katte was one of Friedrich’s many cultured and artistic friends who nurtured the future king’s love of learning during the Enlightenment of the 18th century. He met and corresponded with many philosophers and Enlightenment thinkers, particularly the Frenchman Voltaire.

After he became king Friedrich built a palace called Sans Souci specifically dedicated for the meeting of cultured men (no women were allowed) and Voltaire eventually went to live there. It became the king’s favourite residence. Among the many writers and thinkers who gathered at Sans Souci was 70) Count Francesco Algarotti ( 1712-1764).

Next time : We untangle the affair of the duke’s daughter, the Swan of Padua and macaroni, with a nod to a Roman emperor’s male lover.

Sunday, 11 November 2018

Armistice 100: Poems From the Trenches

All over the world today people are standing in silence to commemorate the end of World War I. It’s an occasion for all of us to strive to create a future of peace and tolerance.

The war affected my own family in many ways. My grandmother’s first husband died serving as a nurse on the hospital ship Britannic in 1916. My grandfather was a stretcher-bearer at the Battle of the Somme where he received injuries. He later married the fiancée of his best friend who was killed there. My grandfather’s sister married a man who suffered serious post-traumatic stress disorder for the rest of his life.

During many of the remembrance events poems will be read that were written during by people who saw first-hand the horrors of war. The names of Wilfred Owen, Siegfried Sassoon and Rupert Brook (all gay men) are well-known.

One lesser-known war poet who was present at the Somme at the same time as my grandfather was Capt. Fabian Strachan Woodley (1888-1957) of the Royal Munster Fusiliers. Although regarded as more of a Uranian poet Fabian wrote a few war poems at the front line. One was a tribute to his male lover. Fabian was part of the second movement of Uranian poetry. This specific genre concentrated on erotic sentiments towards young boys.

Fabian was born in Clifton in Bristol. His father was a wealthy solicitor and his mother came from a long-established gentry family. He was educated at Cheltenham College and Oxford University. He was a very athletic youth, being a member of Clifton Rugby Football Club.

World War I was declared less than a month after Fabian’s 26th birthday. He joined the army and was commissioned as a Lieutenant in the 8th Battalion of the Royal Munster Fusiliers, an Irish Regiment. The battalion was mobilised for war in December 1915 and they were sent straight to the Western Front to the frozen trenches at Loos.

Two months previously the British and German forces had clashed at the Battle of Loos. The British came out worst and criticism was made of the leadership of the British forces in the area. The Commander in Chief was replaced and Fabian’s 8th Battalion was one among many sent to reinforce the front line. Fighting continued throughout the winter. Fabian’s battalion sustained many casualties, the first being on Christmas Eve 1915, the week after arriving there.

In April 1916 the 8th Battalion moved to Hulluch a couple of miles from Loos and were engaged in battle. One soldier later wrote “I saw hundreds dying all around me. I was practically walking on dead bodies all the way. You take no notice of dead bodies out there.”

Fabian Woodley and the 8th Battalion moved back to Loos in June to clear the trenches and strengthen the parapets. German shells were firing at them all the time and there were more casualties. One of them, killed by a shell on 21st June, was Lt. Myles O’Donovan. He was 20 years old.

Lt. O’Donovan was a member of one of the old princely families of Ireland, his father being recognised as the clan chief. Myles and Fabian met before they were both commissioned into the 8th Battalion. In war close friendships develop quickly. No doubt both men were equally close to other battalion members, but Myles O’Donovan seems to have had a special relationship with Fabian Woodley.

Of the many men who were killed in his battalion Fabian wrote only one poem on the death of a specific officer, and that was Lt. Myles O’Donovan. The poem was titled “To Lieut, O’D”. Here it is :

See him standing at the corner,
Cynosure of friendly eyes,
Challenging their kindly sallies,
Combatting with swift replies.

Eyes alight with Life and Laughter,
Brown eyes full of mirth and fun;
Fresh face tanned by months of warfare,
Lithe limbs browned by summer sun.

Suddenly a shell comes screaming,
Through the blue vault overheard,
Strikes – His laughing lips are silent,
All his splendid youth lies dead.

Death! whose arrow countless thousands
And unerring aim have proved,
Could you not have aimed untruly,
Spared for me the boy I loved?

Another hint at the relationship between Fabian Woodley and Myles O’Donovan appears in a building on the O’Donovan estate in County Cork. It is named “Woodley”. It implies that the O’Donovan family recognised the friendship between the two, perhaps even their relationship. There’s no other connection to the name Woodley in the family or the area other than with Fabian. Did Fabian visit the O’Donovans regularly and became friends with Myles before the war?

At the beginning of September 1916 the 8th Battalion moved to the Somme area. With other Irish battalions the 8th attacked the German posts in the Battle of Guillemont in which 265 members were killed. For his part in the action Fabian Woodley was awarded the Military Cross.

In October 1916 the 8th Battalion moved up to Ypres. A month later it was amalgamated with the 1st Battalion because of the loss of troops.

Fabian Woodley left the war as a Captain, and his military legacy attracted attention as recently as May 2017. In that month his war medals came up for auction in Mayfair, London (pictured below). The estimate was £1,000 to £1,200. They sold for £3,400.
After the war Fabian Woodley became a teacher in several public boys schools. He continued to write occasional poetry and published a collection in 1921 called “A Crown of Friendship”. The poems were Uranian in tone, extolling the beauty of youth. Possibly one of the poems was written after a dream Fabian had in which Myles appeared to him. It is called “The Beautiful” (below) and has an air of a reminiscence of lost love. The second verse implies a heavenward journey made through death.

Long years ago there came to me in sleep
The vision of a boy divinely fair;
His eyes were moon-kissed seas, serene and deep,
Elysian blossoms crowned his golden hair;
Light flowed around him, gently fell his voice
Like a soft-singing shower of silver dew.
Long time he gazed, then smiling, spoke “Rejoice!
Seek only Me, for I alone am true!”

Straightaway he fled upborne within a maze
Of mighty wings and music wonderful,
Whilst all the air grew dizzy with the praise
Of voices crying loud, “The Beautiful.”
Heavenward he vanished – but his radiant face
Still haunts me – a pure spiritual joy,
And well I know he makes his dwelling-place
In the clear honest eyes of any boy.